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Naming exoplanets

Extrasolar planets are not named and are referred to only by their assigned scientific designations. In the table below I list suggested proper names to the first 400 extrasolar planets discovered prior to the Kepler mission. The naming scheme is simple, consisting of grouping the planets according to the constellations of the host stars, and assigning them names in association with the myths of the respective constellation. The system is further explained in the following manuscript.

This naming scheme is not official, and not recognized by the IAU comission on exoplanets. Yet, it is the only comprehensive effort so far to name the exoplanets. As a colleague summed up, a solution is better than none. Comments are welcome, as well as name suggestions. The mythological associations of the constellations are exposed in the manuscript and once again in the text that follows the table.

As explained in the manuscript, the scheme of associations with the myth of the constellation is purposively loose, in order to maximize the available names. Most names are from Roman-Greek mythology, but Lupus, the wolf, for instance, may also refer to Fenris in Norse mythology. In another example, Orion, the hunter, may also be Gilgamesh in Sumerian mythology. Name suggestions from other mythologies are particularly welcomed, since they contribute to the internationalization of the system.

Here I also include a FAQ, answering the most common criticism to the scheme.

 

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Constellation Planet Suggested name
Andromeda 14 And b Perses
ups And b Heleus
ups And c Mestor
ups And d Cynurus
HAT-P-6 b Sthenelus
WASP-1 b Alkaios
Antlia HD 93083 b Palamedes
Apus HD 131664 b Virbius
Aquarius Gliese 876 b Dardanus
Gliese 876 c Tros
Gliese 876 d Ilus
HD 210277 b Themiste
HD 222582 b Assaracus
Gj 849 b Capys
HD 219449 b Aigesta
WASP-6 b Teucrus
Aquila CoRoT-3 b Cratos
HD 179079 b Epimetheus
HD 183263 b Elpis
HD 183263 c Pithos
HD 192263 b Prometheus
HD 192699 b Hesione
ksi Aql b Ethon
CoRoT-6 b Zelus
Ara HD 154672 b Pelasgus
HD 154857 b Phassus
HD 160691 b Nyctimus
HD 160691 c Peucetis
HD 160691 d Caucon
HD 160691 e Cynaethus
GJ 674 b Stymphalus
HD 156411 b Melaeneus
GJ 676A b Eumon
HD 152079 b Mantineus
Aries HD 12661 b Aeetes
HD 12661 c Chalciope
HD 20367 b Colchis
HIP 14810 b Chrysomallos
HIP 14810 d Helle
HIP 14810 c Phrixus
30 Ari B b Ino
Auriga HAT-P-9 b Euthenia
HD 40979 b Aglaia
HD 43691 b Lycia
HD 45350 b Eurynome
HD 49674 b Lemnos
WASP-12 b Vulcan
Bootes HAT-P-4 b Pramnos
HD 128311 b Bacchus
HD 128311 c Aithra
HD 132406 b Atlas
tau Boo b Arcas
WASP-14 b Arcadia
CamelopardalisHD 104985 b Triklaria
HD 33564 b Ephesia
XO-3 b Egeria
HD 32518 b Opalia
Cancri 55 Cnc f Stygne
55 Cnc b Anthelea
55 Cnc c Teleia
55 Cnc d Argive
55 Cnc e Euippe
HD 73534 b Pirene
Canes VenaticiHAT-P-12 b Asterion
Canis Major HD 47536 b Leucomelaena
HD 45364 b Maera
HD 45364 c Dromis
HD 47186 b Cisseta
HD 47186 c Lampuris
HD 47536 c Lycoctonus
HD 43197 b Arctophonus
Capricornus HD 202206 b Syrinx
HD 202206 c Echo
HD 204313 b Dryope
Carina HD 65216 b Jason
OGLE-TR-111 b Laocoon
OGLE-TR-113 b Iphitos
OGLE-TR-132 b Autolycus
OGLE2-TR-L9 b Erginus
OGLE-TR-182 b Euryalus
OGLE-TR-211 b Hylas
HD 63765 b Acastus
Cassiopeia HD 240210 b Eulimene
HD 7924 b Orithya
HD 17156 b Thetis
Centaurus HD 101930 b Nephele
HD 102117 b Eurytion
HD 114386 b Pholus
HD 114729 b Nessus
HD 117207 b Rhoecus
HD 117618 b Hylaeus
HD 121504 b Asbolus
HD 109749 b Amycus
HD 103197 b Hylonome
HD 125595 b Cyllarus
Cepheus gamma Cephei b Dannaus
Cetus 81 Cet b Stheno
BD-17 63 b Thoosa
HD 11506 c Charybdis
HD 11964 b Scylla
HD 16141 b Odysseus
HD 19994 b Telemachus
HD 224693 b Euryale
HD 2638 b Phorcys
HD 11506 b Echidna
HD 11964 c Deino
HD 5319 b Polyphemus
HD 6718 b Callidice
HIP 5158 b Polypoites
HD 1461 b Natsihlane
Chamaeleon HD 63454 b Naiad
CT Cha b Nereus
Circinus HD 129445 b Mjollnir
Columba HD 43848 b Peristera
Coma BerenicesHD 108874 b Ariadne
HD 108874 c Theseus
HD 114762 b Naxos
Corona Borealiskappa CrB bEuanthes
rho CrB b Staphylus
XO-1 b Latramys
Corvus HD 104067 b Coronis
Crater BD-10 3166 b Alexiares
HD 96167 b Aniketos
Crux NGC 4349 No 127 b Livas
HD 108147 b Apeliotes
Cygnus HAT-P-7 b Leda
HD 185269 b Eurypylus
HD 187123 b Timandra
HD 190360 b Eurythemis
HD 190360 c Thestius
16 Cyg B b Althaea
HAT-P-11 b Iphicles
HD 187123 c Echemus
Delphinus 18 Del b Delphi
HD 195019 b Apollo
HD 196885 b Melikertes
WASP-2 b Portunes
Dorado HD 30177 b Tyro
HD 28254 b Enipeus
Draco 42 Dra b Ladon
HD 139357 b Aegle
HD 167042 b Eryteis
HIP 75458 b Lipara
TrES-2 Chrysothemis
Eridanus eps Eridani b Styx
Gl 86 b Aqueron
HD 10647 b Cocytus
HD 28185 b Phlegethon
HD 30562 b Radhamantus
HIP 12961 b Eachus
Fornax HD 16417 b Etna
HD 20782 b Lipari
HD 20868 b Milos
Gemini HD 50554 b Romulus
HD 62509 b Remus
HD 59686 b Lupa
BD+20 1790 b Nasatya
Grus HD 208487 b Megarus
HD 213240 b Deucalion
HD 216435 b Pyrrha
GJ 832 b Gerania
Hercules 14 Her b Cerenytis
HAT-P-2 b Erymanthus
HD 149026 b Augean
HD 154345 b Alpheus
HD 155358 b Peneus
HD 155358 c Stymphalia
HD 164922 b Diomedes
TrES-3 Geryon
TrES-4 Cerberus
Gl 649 b Sigurd
HD 156668 b Regin
Horologium HR 810 b Cronus
Hydra2M1207 b Lerna
HD 122430 b Adiante
HD 70573 b Amphitrite
HD 72659 b Galatea
HD 74156 b Amymone
HD 74156 c Thaleia
HD 74156 d Pasithea
HD 82943 b Nausithoe
HD 82943 c Menippe
WASP-15 b Asia
HD 86264 b Hyperippe
GJ 433 b Spio
HD 90156 b Ianira
HD 86226 b Jormungand
Hydrus GJ 3021 b Delos
HD 11977 b Ortygia
Indus HD 216437 b Hesper
Lacerta HAT-P-1 b Abas
Leo BD20 2457 b Omphale
BD20 2457 c Lamus
GJ 436 b Nemea
HD 100777 b Elissos
HD 81040 b Iraklion
HD 88133 b Polynices
HD 89307 b Lycurgus
HD 99109 b Cleonae
HD 99492 b Tmolus
DP Leo b Yali
gamma 1 Leo b Nergal
Leo MinorHD 87883 b Archemoros
Lepus HD 33283 b Epimelius
Libra Gl 581 c Ymir
Gl 581 d Eunomia
Gl 581 b Themis
Gl 581 e Eirene
HD 134987 b Astraea
HD 141937 b Dysis
HD 134987 c Forseti
LupusLupus-TR-3 b Lycaon
GQ Lup b Therion
HIP 70849 b Fenris
Lynx 6 Lyn b Scythia
XO-4 b Metanira
XO-5 b Lyncus
HD 75898 b Celeus
WASP-13 b Doso
XO-2 b Demophon
LyraHD 173416 b Orpheus
HD 177830 b Eurydice
HD 178911 B b Siren
TrES-1 Hermes
HAT-P-5 b Petasus
WASP-3 b Alipes
Mensa HD 39091 b Adamastor
MicroscopiumWASP-7 b Talos
MonocerosHD 45652 b Capra
HD 46375 b Dejanira
HD 52265 b Adamanthea
HD 66428 b Caria
CoRoT-4 b Cornucopia
CoRoT-7 b Icarus
CoRoT-7 c Daedalus
CoRoT-1 b Achelous
CoRoT-5 b Cybele
HD 44219 b Dexamenus
Musca HD 111232 b Melaina
Norma HD 142415 b Metis
HD 143361 b Aegis
HD 330075 b Pallax
HD 148156 b Labrys
OctansHD 142022 A b Auster
HD 212301 b Notus
OphiuchusHD 148427 b Vediovis
HD 156846 b Yaso
HD 170469 b Epione
HD 171028 b Meditrina
HD 149143 b Aratus
GJ 1214 b Shesha
Orion HD 37605 b Cedalion
HD 38529 b Eos
HD 38529 c Sidde
HD 290327 b Gilgamesh
Pavo HD 181433 d Cithaeron
HD 196050 b Hera
HD 181433 b Hestia
HD 181433 c Argolia
HD 190984 b Cydippe
HD 175167 b Neelkanth
SCR 1845 b Parvani
Pegasus 51 Peg b Bellerophon
BD14 4559 b Chimera
HD 209458 b Osiris
HD 210702 b Hypolita
HD 219828 b Penthesilea
HR 8799 b Philonoe
HR 8799 c Iobates
HR 8799 d Anteia
V391 Peg b Chrysaor
HAT-P-8 b Nike
WASP-10 b Parthenos
Perseus HD 16175 b Danae
HD 16760 b Nicippe
HD 17092 b Eurymedon
HD 23596 b Seriphos
WASP-11/HAT-P-10 b Kibisis
Phoenix HD 142 b Pyrius
HD 2039 b Phlegon
HD 6434 b Bronte
WASP-18 b Fulgitrua
WASP-5 b Tonitrua
WASP-4 b Abraxas
HD 5388 b Aethon
HD 8535 b Therbeeo
Pictor AB Pic b Silenus
beta Pic b Midas
HD 40307 b Asellus
HD 40307 c Marsyas
HD 40307 d Sardis
HD 41004 A b Pactolus
HD 41004 B b Lityerses
Pisces HD 10697 b Hedone
HD 217107 b Eros
HD 217107 c Psyche
HD 3651 b Porus
HD 4203 b Penia
HD 8574 b Zephyrus
Piscis Austrinus Fomalhaut b Illion
HD 216770 b Troad
HD 205739 b Dardania
Puppis HD 48265 b Medea
HD 50499 b Lynceus
HD 60532 b Iolaus
HD 60532 c Mopsus
HD 69830 b Lachesis
HD 69830 c Atropos
HD 69830 d Clotho
HD 70642 b Lusus
NGC 2423 3 b Tagide
Pyxis HD 73256 b Magnes
HD 73267 b Dictys
GJ 317 b Hymenaios
Reticulum HD 23079 b Urania
HD 23127 b Melete
HD 27442 b Mneme
HD 27894 b Plusia
Sagitta HD 231701 b Paris
Sagittarius HD 169830 b Chiron
HD 169830 c Philyra
HD 179949 b Nauplius
HD 187085 b Pelion
HD 190647 b Chariclo
MOA-2007-BLG-192-L b Endeis
OGLE-06-109L b Melanippe
OGLE-06-109L c Okyrhoe
OGLE-TR-10 b Carystos
OGLE-TR-56 b Ajax
OGLE235-MOA53 b Caeneus
SWEEPS-04 Actaeon
SWEEPS-11 Telamon
MOA-2007-BLG-400-L b Achilles
OGLE-05-169L b Arne
HD 171238 b Patroclus
HD 181720 b Aeneas
HD 164604 b Alcathous
Scorpius HD 145377 b Aetheria
HD 147513 b Clymene
HD 153950 b Aegiale
HD 159868 b Phaeteon
HD 162020 b Helia
OGLE-05-071L b Dioxippe
OGLE-05-390L b Leucothoa
PSR B1620-26 b Methuselah
MOA-2008-BLG-310-L b Ialysos
WASP-17 b Euryphaessa
GJ 667C b Merope
HIP 79431 b Masha
OGLE-2007-BLG-368L b Selket
Sculptor HD 4113 b Pygmalion
HD 4208 b Metharme
HD 9578 b Paphos
Serpens CoRoT-2 b Arima
HD 168443 b Delphyne
HD 168443 c Typhon
HD 168746 b Askalaphos
HD 175541 b Orthrus
Sextans HD 86081 b Calypso
HD 92788 b Circe
BD-082823 b Telegonus
BD-082823 c Nausinous
Taurus eps Tau b Semele
HD 37124 b Cadmus
HD 37124 c Pax
HD 37124 d Concordia
HD 285968 b Cilix
TriangulumHD 13189 b Acmon
HD 9446 b Saa
HD 9446 c Thoth
Triangulum AustraleHD 147018 b Damnameneus
HD 147018 c Celmis
Tucana HD 221287 b Cyllene
HD 4308 b Nysa
HD 215497 b Wagnuka
HD 215497 c Hoksine
Ursa Major 4 Uma b Calliope
47 Uma b Clio
47 Uma c Euterpe
HAT-P-13 b Skiron
HAT-P-13 c Kaikias
HAT-P-3 b Atalanta
HD 68988 b Leto
HD 80606 b Niobe
HD 81688 b Calydon
HD 89744 b Artemis
HD 118203 b Adonis
Ursa Minor 11 UMi b Boreas
Vela HD 73526 b Argus
HD 73526 c Peleus
HD 75289 b Palaemon
HD 83443 b Echion
HD 85390 b Idmon
WASP-19 b Talaus
Virgo 70 Vir b Cora
HD 102195 b Erinys
HD 102272 b Demeter
HD 102272 c Persephone
HD 106252 b Eleusis
HD 107148 b Enna
HD 110014 b Callichoron
HD 114783 b Nycteus
HD 130322 b Alastor
HW Vir b Hecate
HW Vir c Rodi
PSR 1257+12 b Sisyphus
PSR 1257+12 c Ixion
PSR 1257+12 d Tantalus
WASP-16 b Liriope
HD 125612 b Narcissus
HD 125612 c Ameinias
HD 125612 d Cephisus
QS Vir b Anat
61 Vir b Devana
61 Vir c Tamar
61 Vir d Tuonetar
VolansHD 76700 b Nesaea
Vulpecula HD 188015 b Laelaps
HD 189733 b Alopekos
HD 190228 b Teumesia

Andromeda

Andromeda, named after the Ethiopian princess, offered in sacrifice and later saved by Perseus, has an obvious mythological association. I suggest the planets around stars of that constellation be named after the descendants of Perseus and Andromeda. They are seven sons, Cynurus, Perses, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, and Electryon; and two daughter, Gorgophone, and Autochtoe. The dynasty of the Perseus and Andromeda, the Perseids, has a profusion of legends where to draw further names from.

Antlia

Antlia, the air pump, is a constellation invented by Lacaille, who, as mentioned in the manuscript, discontinued the tradition of mythological names. As explained in that section, I propose to name planets in his constellations after inventors in the classical myths. I pick here Palamedes for the planet of HD 93083. As a fighter in the Trojan War, his myth has a reasonable length where to draw more names. Vulcan, Mercury, Minerva, and other inventors can be other sources as well.

Apus

Apus, the bird of paradise, is one of the constellations defined by Plancius. As a bird, it should be draw association with Diana, the hunter goddess and also protector of wildlife in general. The planet around HD 131664 in Apus could then be called Virbius (Roman counterpart of Hyppolytus), a fair hero (or god in the Roman version) who spent his days hunting with Diana.

Aquarius

The constellation of Aquarius represents Ganymede, the cup-bearer of the gods. His family tree therefore provides a good source of names for the planets in the constellation. The planets of Gliese 876 could be named Dardanus, Tros, and Ilus, after his great-grandfather, father, and brother, the founders of Dardania, Tros, and Illium, the three villages that amalgamated into Troy. The associated with Troy provides yet another source of names for futurely discovered planets. Other planets could be called Assaracus (the other brother of Ganymede); Themiste, his niece, daughter of Ilus; Capys, his nephew, son of Assaracus and Aigesta (or Themiste, according to a variant of the legend). Other related character is Teucrus, after whom the land Teucria was named. Teucria is the former name of Dardania, and is yet another name for the Troad. In another variant, the figure in the constellation is Deucalion, the water being poured representing the Deluge. I prefer to keep Aquarius as Ganymede, the more accepted version, and associate Decaulion with the constellation of Grus.

Aquila

Aquila, the Eagle, appears three times in Greek mythology. First, it is the eagle that carried Jupiter's thunderbolts in the ten-year fight against his father Saturn and the Titans for the control of the world. Later, it is the eagle (or Jupiter himself in the shape on an eagle) that abducted Ganymede to Mount Olympus. In a third appearance, it is Ethon, the eagle sent by Jupiter to torture Prometheus by repeatedly eating his liver day by day. As the myth of Ganymede is already used in Aquarius, the latter is a more useful source of names, embodied in the fascinating myth of Prometheus. Son of Iapetus, one of the Titans, Prometheus created mankind from clay, also giving them reason. The Olympics did not think much of the new integrants of the world, and actually welcomed the rituals of sacrifices and honor and reverence to them. The balance, however, tilted when Prometheus stole the fire of the gods and gave it to men. Men now did not need to fear cold or darkness, they could cook their grains, roast their meat, forge their weapons. Suddenly they were less dependent on the gods. The Olympics feared that men could eventually take their place on the command of the world, as they supplanted the Titans before them. Mankind's paradise had to be destroyed, and Prometheus punished for the crime of creating a race that rivaled the gods. Ethon and Prometheus are obvious choices of name. Other is Epimetheus, Prometheus brother. Pandora does not strike as a planet's name, but Pithos, Pandora's box, could feature, as well as its most precious contents, Elpis, hope in ancient Greek. Prometheus was chained by Cratos, Bia, and Vulcan, on top of a mount in the Caucasus. Bia (force) and Cratos (power) are two of four siblings, the other two being Nike (victory) and Zelus (zeal). The former is associated with Minerva, and should be reserved for her. Zelus fits, although the name closely resembles ``celo'' (jealousy) and ``zelo'' (zeal) in Spanish and Portuguese, respectively. Of course, there is no surprise, since the etymology of both words come from the Greek deity. I also suggest to name one of the planets after the mount where Prometheus was chained. The mount is usually associated with Mount Elbrus, the highest mount in the Caucasus.

Ara

Ara, the Altar, is associated with the altar of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, who slaughtered and dismembered one of his 50 sons, offering the flesh in a banquet to the gods. Jupiter restored the dead son to life, and punished Lycaon by striking the remaining 49 with lightning, and changing him into a werewolf. There are many different versions of the myth, one states that the offered child was Arcas, other that it was Nyctimus. In another version, the 49 remaining children were not killed, but also turned into wolves. In any case, we have enough names to choose from the kin of Lycaon. For the seven planets discovered in Ara, I suggest Pelasgus, Phassus, Nyctimus, Peucetis, Caucon, Cynaethus, Stymphalus, Melaeneus, Eumon, and Mantineus.

Aries

Aries represents Chrysomallos, the winged ram with golden fleece. It features prominently in the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, as the main goal of the expedition. As I reserve most of the myth for the constellation of Puppis, Vela, and Carina (the parts of the Argo), here I use only part of the myth of Aries that not associated with the Argonauts. As with Pegasus and Bellerophon, it is natural to associated a planet with the character(s) who rode Aries. In this case, it is Phrixus, son of Athamas and Nephele, the cloud goddess made by Jupiter in the shape of Juno, also mother of the centaurs. Nephele sent Aries to save Phrixus and his twin sister, Helle, from their evil stepmother Ino, who plotted to kill them. Phrixus flew to Colchis, where he was adopted by king Aeetes. There he married Chalciope, daughter of Aeetes, and sacrificed Aries to Jupiter. We already have in this paragraph seven names for the planets found in Aries to date. The planets in the triple system around HIP 14810 can be named Phrixus, Helle, and Chrysomallos, thus the planets revolving around the star share a mythological resemblance with the flight of the twins on the back of the winged ram. In the myth, Helle fell and drowned in the Dardanelles, which is where the ancient name of the strait, Hellespont, comes from. HIP 14810d, the lighter and most eccentric of the three planets, can be named after her. The planets around HD 12661 can be named Aeetes and Chalciope, after Phrixus new family in Colchis, while HD 20367 b can be named Colchis itself. The planet around 30 Ari B can be named Ino. The name Athamas can be reserved for a planet futurely found in the constellation. Nephele better fits with the centaurs, her more famous offspring.

Auriga

Auriga, the charioteer, usually represents the blacksmith god Vulcan. Planet Vulcan has become sort of a running gag in astronomy. It was the name given to a hypothetical planet supposed to exist in an intra-Mercurian orbit, the inner solar system equivalent to Planet X (not Pluto). Before Einstein's general relativity, a hypothetical planet was the favored explanation for the precession of Mercury's perihelion. Le Verrier called it Vulcan and calculated its orbit. His success with Neptune prompted a search and soon transits of Vulcan were reported. Le Verrier died convinced that he had discovered yet another planet, but in the end, no conclusively evidence of Vulcan could be found. The name nevertheless stuck with both with the general public and among astronomers, since the blacksmith god is such a good name for an object so close to a star. The former included a planet Vulcan in the series Star Trek, while the latter are still looking for hypothetical Vulcanoid asteroids between the Sun and Mercury. It was even suggested that the whole class of Hot Jupiters should be called ``Vulcan Planets''. It seems that we are just dying to use the name. So here it is. The transiting planet WASP-12 b seems the best proxy of the class of Hot Jupiters among the planets discovered in Auriga. With a mass of 1.41 MJ, and a semi-major axis 0.0229 AU, it circles the star in 1.09 day. This scorched hot planet in Auriga certainly deserves the title of Vulcan. Since his beautiful wife Venus already lies in the Solar system, it seems fair that the smith god should have the benefit of Aglaia, the youngest of the three Graces, who is attributed to be his wife in a variant of the myth. Lemnos, the place where he landed when thrown from Olympus by his sweet of a mother; and Lycia, the place where his cult originated, are also good choices. Euthenia, one of his daughters with Aglaia closes the list of names for Auriga.

Bootes

The constellation of Bootes, or herdsman, has no clear representation. In Roman-Greek mythology he is Arcas, the son of Callisto and Jupiter, whereas others interpret it as being Icarius (not Icarus), a herdsman who was taught the art of wine-making by Bacchus himself. Yet another interpretation has him as Atlas, who carried the world on his shoulders. The ambiguity is welcome, since the constellation is large. Arcas is also said to be Ursa Minor since, in a variant of the myth, Jupiter transformed both Callisto and Arcas into bears. Arcas lends its name to Arcadia, region of Greece famous for its bucolic lifestyle. Arcadia is also where the cult of Apollo flourished, as well as the region where Mount Cyllene, the birthplace of Mercury, stands. Mercury's mortal mother, Maia, also raised Arcas in a variant of the myth. Since Bacchus already appears in the constellation, we save Mercury for Lyra, the lyre, the instrument that he invented. Apollo has no clear strong association with any constellation (and loose associations with many), so I refrain from using his myth here as well. I propose to name the planets of Bootis after Arcas (tau Boo b), Atlas (HD 128311 b), and Bacchus (HD 132406 b). Other names are Arcadia for WASP-14 b, and Pramnos for HAT-P-4 b. The second planet of HD 128311 could be called Aithra, after the Oceanid nymph with whom Atlas begot the Hyades. Atlas is purposely included. It is already a name given to a star of the Pleiades, a satellite of Saturn, and a crater on the Moon. It illustrates that the same designation does not cause confusion since the objects pertain to different fields of study.

Caelum

Caelum, the chisel, contains no known planet-hosting stars as of Feb 2010. As an art-related constellations, names can be drawn from Apollo's myth.

Camelopardalis

Camelopardalis, the giraffe, is a constellation created by Plancius. As a land animal, names for planets should be drawn from Diana's myth. Egeria, a nymph associated with Diana. Triklaria, one of her titles, and Ephesia, after her main local of adoration, may as well appear as names for planets in this constellation. A loose association can be established with Ceres or other agricultural deities, as mentioned in the manuscript. I therefore suggest one of the planets be called Opalia, after the festivities to the goddess Ops. Ops, mother of Ceres, is the Roman equivalent to Rhea, mother of Demeter (Cybele was actually her name in Phrigya).

Cancer

Cancer, the crab, plays a minor role in Greek-Roman mythology, namely, in Hercules' twelve labors. While Hercules was fighting the Hydra of Lerna, Juno sent a crab to distract him. Hercules simply crushed the insignificant creature. Grateful for the crab's effort, Juno gave it a place in sky. The connection with the Hydra allows for associating Cancer with the region of Lerna, full of mythological detail. The Danaids, for instance, buried in Lerna the heads of their husbands. I take three names from the Danaids, Anthelea, Stygne, and Euippe. From Juno we may take two of her titles, Argive, and Teleia, For the planet recently discovered around HD 73534, I draw again from the Danaids, and suggest the name of Pirene.

Canes Venatici

Canes Venatici, the hunting hounds, is a spurious constellation. Historically part of Bootis, it was mistranslated from Greek (as cudgel) to Arabic (hook) and once again from Arabic back to Latin (dogs). Hevelius (1690) formalized them as Bootes' hunting hounds, Asterion and Chara. Asterion is now known as Cor Caroli, which releases the name to planetary use. The only planet-hosting star in the constellation is HAT-P-12. I propose its planet be called Asterion, after the old name of Cor Caroli.

Canis Major

Canis Major represents the dogs of Orion, the mighty hunter. One source cites them as Leucomelaena, Maera, Dromis, Cisseta, Lampuris, Lycoctonus, Ptoophagus, and Arctophonus. We get the first six names. The constellation has a profusion of variants, maybe representing Laelaps, the mythological dog who never failed to catch a prey; maybe the hound of Procris, a nymph of Diana; or the mightily fast dog given by Aurora to Cephalus. Laelaps however, appears more prominently in the myth of the Teumessian fox, and therefore we choose to use it for a planet in Vulpecula. In any case, there are plenty of sources for further names in Canis Major, that can as well be applied to Canis Minor, when planets are found there.

Canis Minor

Canis Minor contains no known planet-hosting stars as of Feb 2010.

Capricornus

The constellation of Capricornus, the goat, may represent Pan, the powerful Faun, or Amalthea, the goat that nourished the infant Jupiter. I prefer to connect the latter with Monoceros, that lacks other major mythological associations, and use Pan for Capricornus. Pan is a pastoral deity, guardian of flocks and shepherds. His father was Mercury, who in the shape of a goat conceived him with a doubtful mother. The nymphs Dryope and Oeneis; Penelope, the wife of Ulysses; and even Amalthea herself, are mentioned in different versions of the myth. As a Faun, Pan is depicted as a man with horns, tail and feet of a goat. He lived among the nymphs, and claimed to have seduced many of them. One, Syrinx, was not so interested and fled in terror. She was turned into a clump of reeds, from which Pan made a pipe, syrinx, the pan flute. Echo, usually associated with Narcissus, was also loved by Pan in a variant of her myth. The connection between Pan and Capricornus comes from the episode where he leapt into the Nile to escape Typhon as Jupiter struggled with the monster. His head became that of a goat, and his hindquarters the rear part of a fish. He was later elevated to the skies as Capricornus. The constellation is referred sometimes to as the ``sea-goat'' because of it. But the name in Latin, capri-cornus, translates simply as goat-horn. I propose to name the three planets known in Capricornus Syrinx, Echo, and Dryope. Pan itself is not used since it is already a moon of Saturn. Actually, the main reason is subjective. Pan is homophonous to the widely used Greek word pan, to which the god has no connection. Echo has the same name as the acoustic phenomenon, but here there is an immediate connection since the phenomenon was named after the nymph or vice-versa.

Carina

Carina, like Puppis and Vela, is a part of the ancient constellation of Argo Navis, representing the ship of Jason and the Argonauts. Due to its immense size, Navis was divided by Lacaille (1763) into Carina, the keel, Puppis, the poop deck, and Vela, the sails. I will refer to the three of them as Navis or Ship. The myth can be no other than the myth of the Argonauts, the 50-60 heroes who boarded the Argo with Jason in his quest for Aries, the golden Fleece. I include the name Jason, even though it is a common male name in English-speaking countries (I add though, that the original pronouncing is Yasson). Other planets in Carina are obviously named after the Argonauts. Puppis and Vela will naturally draw from the same source. As the Ship takes a very large fraction of the sky, we expect many planets to be found there. Other sailing myths such as the Iliad and the Lusiad may be used in the future.

Cassiopeia

Cassiopeia, queen of Ethiopia, once unwisely bragged that she and her daughter Andromeda were fairer than the Nereids. This angered Neptune, that put her near the pole, where she would spent half of her time upside down. I propose to name the planets in Cassiopeia after the Nereids, to better torment the poor vain queen. Eulimene, Orinthya, and Thetis are my choices for the three known planets.

Centaurus

The centaurs are well known to astronomers, as the minor bodies between the main belt and the Kuiper belt. As most of them are already designated after a mythological centaur, we have no choice but to used repeated names. However, I reserve Chiron for Sagittarius, the centaur usually associated with that constellation. In his place I include Nephele, the mother of the Centaurs.

Cepheus

Cepheus, Andromeda's father, is a constellation where just one planet has been confirmed. I propose to name it after Dannaus, Cepheus' brother.

Cetus

Cetus, the whale, is the sea monster sent by Neptune to terrorize the coast of Ethiopia in order to punish Cassiopeia for her arrogance. Cetus plays a non-negligible role in Greek mythology as she and her consort Phorcyd, a primordial sea god, sprang many other monsters, collectively called the Phorcyds. I propose they should name the planets circling stars in that constellation. Scylla, a six-headed monster; Stheno and Euryale, two of the Gorgons (the other being Medusa); Echidna, usually the mother of all monsters, but according to a variant of the legend also an offspring of Cetus; Deino, one of the Graeae, three horrible sisters that shared one eye and one tooth among them; and Thoosa, mother of the cyclops Polyphemus. Scylla also naturally brings Charybdis, the sea monster with whom she teams up on the task of dooming unadverted sailors. Cetus is a part of the sky called the Sea, for the profusion of water-related constellations. As such, I strongly encourage the name of Ulysses for one of its planets, in honor of the hero who navigated through all these dangers. However, I use his Greek name Odysseus, since Ulysses is a semi-common male name. Planet Odysseus could be a planet of one of the double systems, HD 11964, so that the other planet is named after his son, Telemachus. The other double system, HD 11506, naturally goes to Scylla and Charybdis. The two most recent ones can be named after Callidice, wife of Odysseus during his voyage to Thesprotia, and Polypoites, their son. The presence of Odysseus also allows for the addition of characters of the Odyssey as more planets are discovered in the Sea. This area of the sky includes Cetus, Aquarius, Pisces, Piscis Austrinus, Eridanus, Delphinus, and Hydra. Some also include Navis, Crater, and Capricornus. Whales also feature prominently in other mythologies. The Tlingit people of northwest North American tell the story of the hero Natsihlane, who created the Orca, carving it out of wood. It is a good name for the planet HD 1461 b.

Chamaeleon

Chamaeleon is one of Plancius' constellations. Being an animal, it welcomes a connection with Diana. However, I am inclined to first associate it with Proteus, son of Neptune. Proteus can tell the future, but will only tell it to someone who is capable of capturing him. To avoid that, he changes his shape. Although shape-shifting is a common theme in Greek mythology, Proteus is the one deity mostly associated with it, as protean came to mean ``versatile'', and carries a positive connection of flexibility, versatility and adaptability, much in the same way as someone can be described as a ``chameleon''. It also allows to use the myth of Neptune, quite underrepresented so far, instead of Diana, who will be shared among many animal-related constellations. Nereus also has the ability to shape-shift, and may be used as well. He also figures in a version of the myth as Proteus father, the mother being a Naiad, nymphs of springs and fresh water. As said in the manuscript, I refrain from using the names of major moons. But Naiad is only a smaller moon of Neptune. It may as well figure as a planet with no major source of confusion.

Circinus

Circinus, the drafting compass, is one of Lacaille's constellations, and contains no mythological association. As of Feb 2010, one planet has been found orbiting a star in Circinus, HD 129445 b. Used to draw circles, it strongly suggests an association with geometry, hence with Minerva or Apollo. Yet, I will make use of a spin to illustrate the flexibility of the constellation-myth naming scheme. There is a mnemonic in Greek to remember the first numbers of pi. It is a so-called ``piem'', a (pi-)``poem'' in which the number of letters in each word is equal to the corresponding digit of pi. The first sentence reads \\ whence it can be seen that the number of letters in each word is 3-1-4-1-5-9-2-6, the first numbers in the sequence of pi. The spin is the following. The sentence translates into ``Always the great god uses geometry to everything''. The drafting compass is an instrument used to draw circles. The sentence equals it to something that the ``great god'' always uses. The great god being Jupiter, its ``instrument'' is the lightning, the weapon the god always bears. The lightning reminds us of Thor, the thunder-god of Norse mythology. Its instrument is Mj\"ollnir, the mighty hammer. Mj\"ollnir can thus be used as a name for HD 129445 b, and further planets in Circinus may draw names from Thor's many battles. Far-fetched? Precisely.

Columba

Columba, the dove, is one of Plancius' constellations. He named it after the dove of Noah, that gave him the information that the Flood had stopped. A flood legend also figures in Greek mythology, when Jupiter decided to end the Bronze Age and sent the Deluge. However, I associate that story with Grus, and prefer to associate Columba with a passage of the Lusiad. Camões describes the chariot of Venus as being pulled by swans and surrounded by doves who playfully circle it. He names at least one, Peristera, a nymph converted into a dove by Cupid. That fits well for the only planet discovered so far circling a star in Columba (though the ``planet'' actually seems to be a brown dwarf). Further discoveries may drawn from the myths of Venus and/or Cupid, like Pisces.

Coma Berenices

Coma Berenices, or Berenice's Hair, is one of the few constellations that is named after a historical rather than mythological figure, Queen Berenice II of Egypt. However, Eratosthenes referred to it as both Berenice's Hair or Ariadne's Hair. I take the latter to keep the associations mythological. Ariadne is the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, who ordered the construction of the Labyrinth to hold the Minotaur. This immediately associates the constellation with the myth of Daedalus and Icarus, the Labyrinth's most famous occupants after only the Minotaur himself, and perhaps Theseus, who killed the Minotaur. In the more common version of the myth, Ariadne fell in love with Theseus. In a variant, she is the bride of Bacchus. Two stars in Coma Berenices are known to have substellar companions, though one of them, HD 114762, is probably circled by a brown dwarf. The other star, HD 108874, harbors a double system. The double system may be called Ariadne and Theseus. The massive planet can be called Naxos, after the island where Bacchus met Ariadne. HD 108874 b is a planet with close Earth-like insolation, so the name of the fair Ariadne is quite fit.

Corona Austrina

Corona Austrina, the southern crown, contains no known planet-hosting stars as of Feb 2010.

Corona Borealis

Corona Borealis is associated with a crown that Bacchus gave to Ariadne. Three stars with planets are known there, that I suggest be named after three of their children, Euanthes, Staphylus, and Latramys.

Corvus

Corvus, the crow, is the bird of Apollo. In the myth the crow as a speaking bird with white feathers, and loyal to the god. The bird was put in charge of watching over Apollo's love, Coronis, who was then pregnant with Asclepius. The crow witnessed Coronis being unfaithful to him with a mortal, Ischys, and reported it to Apollo. The god was furious, and unjustly turned his anger on the unfortunate bird, scorching his feathers black and removing its ability to speak. He later also had his sister Diana kill Coronis because he could not bear doing it himself. As of Feb 2010, there is one known planet circling a star in Corvus. I suggest naming it Coronis.

Crater

Crater, the cup, represents the cup of Apollo. The legend does not extend beyond a couple of lines. Corvus serves him water, but lazily brings it with a water snake inside. Apollo angrily throws them all into the sky. With little to draw from, we may as well associate the constellation with Ganymede again, or Hebe, the cupbearer before him. With Hercules, Hebe had two sons, Alexiares and Aniketus, gatekeepers of Olympus, who may lend their names to the two planets discovered so far in Crater. Hebe herself is too common a name.

Crux

Crux, the Southern Cross, is a constellation of major significance for navigation in the southern hemisphere. Unlike in the northern hemisphere, the celestial south pole has no bright star to mark its position. However, we can rely on the Southern Cross to point our direction. Its major arm, prolonged 4.5 times, marks the position of the celestial south pole. It is also of cultural significance, appearing in the flags of five countries, namely, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa. In Brazil, where it is known as Cruzeiro do Sul or simply Cruzeiro, it even featured as the name of the currency (from 1942 to 1986 and again from 1990 to 1994), as well as of a football team. These facts underscore that its main association is not with Christianity, but with south. Two planets are known in Crux, around the stars HD 108147 b, and NGC 4349 No 127 (that a star in a cluster). I suggest to name them after Livas, the Southwest wind, and Apeliotes, the southeast wind. The south wind Noto is used for a planet in Octans, the constellation that contains the south pole.

Cygnus

Cygnus, the swan, was the disguise used by Zeus to seduce and impregnate Leda, a much used theme in Renaissance art. I suggest the planets of Cygnus be named after Leda and her family. Thestius, her father; Iphicles, Eurypylus, two of her brothers; Althaea, her sister; Timandra, her daughter, and Echemus, Timandra's husband may name the double system of HD 187123. A futurely discovered planet may be named after Cycnus, name of three characters of Greek mythology who were transformed into swans. Other mythologies also feature characters that were transformed into swans. Examples are Etaine and Mider, from Celtic mythology. It also opens a rich mythology where to draw names from. The inclusion of other mythologies is more than welcome since it maximizes the available names.

Delphinus

Delphinus, the dolphin, has a minor role in Greek mythology, associated with Arion, a poet of Lesbos allegedly from the 7th century BC. Although his historical existence is a matter of ongoing debate, legendary for sure is the story of his kidnapping, that rendered the association with the dolphin. Sailing back home after winning a music competition, the crew of the ship plotted to kill him and steal the prize. His last wish was to play one last song, a hymn to Apollo. The beautiful song attracted dolphins, and he jumped to the sea, being saved by one of them. The story is perhaps inspired in the myth of Melikertes, also associated with the lesser known Roman deity Portunes, god of harbors and ports. The myth allows for a loose association with Apollo. Although some might argue that Apollo as a solar deity should figure in a zodiacal constellation, the resemblance of the names Delphinus and Delphi, the Oracle of Apollo and the most famous in Greek mythology, somehow suggests the association. I therefore suggest the four planets known in Delphinus to be called Delphi, Apollo, Melikertes, and Portunes.

Dorado

Dorado is one of the constellations created by Plancius. Dorado or Dourado is the name given to many species of fishes, the best known of them being the goldfish (``dorado'' literally means ``golden'' in Spanish). It is also a major fish of the Amazon. There are two known planets circling stars in Dorado. Being associated with water, I suggest one of them be named Tyro, lover of Enipeus, a river-god. She was also one of the many love adventures of Neptune. The other may as well be named Enipeus.

Draco

Draco is a constellation representing Ladon, the hundred-headed dragon who guarded the garden of the Hesperides, nymphs of the evening, prominently featured as the 11th labor of Hercules. The names and number of the Hesperides varies according to variants of the myth. I list Aegle, Erysteis, Lipara, and Chrysothemis as possible names. Another of the five planets discovered circling a star in Draco can of course be named Ladon. Also worth noting is that due to the precession of the equinoxes, Draco contained the north celestial pole in the early Bronze Age. In the area of modern-day Draco, the ancient egyptians saw Tawaret. Being the goddess of motherhood in their pantheon, the protective deity was associated with the ever-vigilant constellation that never sets. Her name is well-suited for further planets found in Draco. It further illustrates how other mythologies can be easily included in the proposed naming scheme.

Equuleus

Equuleus, the little horse, contains no known planet-hosting stars as of Feb 2010.

Eridanus

Eridanus in most versions of the Greek myths is a river that surrounds the world. Virgil, however, lists it as one of the rivers of Hades, the underworld, realm of Pluto. Hades has other five rivers, Acheron, Cocytus, Phlegethon, Lethe, and Styx. These are obvious choices for planets around the stars of Eridanus. Further names can be drawn from the myth of Pluto. In particular, instead of Lethe I include Radhamantus, one of the three judges of Hades. Eachus, other judge, is also included (the third judge is Minos).

Fornax

Fornax, the furnace, is one of Lacaille's constellations. Being a furnace, it is immediately associated with Vulcan. Aetna, or Etna, after the mountain where his workshop was supposedly located, invites for a naming after volcanos. Lipari, for the association with Vulcan. Milos, a volcano of Greece, and homonomous volcanic island, is welcome since it is also associated with the famous statues Venus of Milo, thus indirectly connecting Vulcan and Venus, as in the myth.

Gemini

Gemini, represent the twins Castor and Pollux, the dioscuri, sons of Leda. As both are already names of stars, I suggest the names of the other famous twins, Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of Rome. The third planet in Gemini can be Lupa, the she-wolf that nourished the twins. The Dioscuri also find counterparts in other mythologies. An example are the Ashvins of Vedic mythology, twin horseman gods that symbolize sunrise and sunset. They are called Nasatya and Dasra, which are also good names for planets in Gemini. Divine twins are a recurring theme in mythologies across the world, further myths exist for further planets futurely discovered in the constellation.

Grus

Grus, the bird crane, is one of Plancius' constellations. The crane appears once in classic mythology, associated with the Greek version of the flood, as already mentioned in Columba. When Jupiter was about the send the deluge, Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build an ark. He and his wife Pyrrha were thus saved from the rising waters. When the deluge was over, Deucalion and Pyrrha consulted the oracle of Themis on how to repopulate the Earth. They were told to throw the bones of their mother over their shoulders. Pyrrha interpret the mother as being the Earth, the bones being stones. The stones Deucalion threw became men; the ones that Pyrrha threw become women. Other men escaped from perishing in the deluge as well, by clinging to the top of high mountains. One of them was Megarus, who swam to the top of Mount Gerania, following the sound of cranes. There are four planets discovered around stars in Grus, that I suggest should be named Deucalion, Pyrrha, Megarus, and Gerania.

Hercules

Hercules, as one of the richest myths of ancient Greece, should be a plentiful source of names on its own. In honor of the herculeous effort of those who discovered the exoplanets, I propose to name these planets after associations with the twelve labors of the hero. The first two, the Nemean Lion and the Lernaean Hydra, already have associated constellations, and should pertain there. But the other ten are there for the taking. I therefore suggest Cerenytis, Erymanthus, Augean, Alpheus, Peneus, Stymphalia, Diomedes, Geryon, and Cerberus. It is worth noting that although Cerberus could figure in Eridanus, associated with Hades, it also fits well in Hercules. The reason is that Cerberus was a former constellation, defined by Hevelius (1690), who envisioned Hercules in the sky struggling with the three-headed dog. Being an archetypical myth of the strong man, Hercules finds counterparts in virtually every mythology. His Norse version was Sigurd. From his myth I suggest his name and that of his foster father Regin for two planets in Hercules. Some similarities can be also be drawn between Hercules and the Egyptian god Horus, also a rich myth with plenty of names for future planets in Hercules.

Horologium

Horologium, the hourglass, is a modern constellation. As it associated with time, I can think of no other but Cronus, Saturn's Greek name, for the planet of HR 810, Iota Horologii, the only known planet-hosting star in that constellation.

Hydra

The constellation of Hydra, representing the Lernaean Hydra, deserves some pause. Hydra figures only as the 2nd labor of Hercules, yet it is the biggest of the 88 constellations. Even though Lerna is full of mythological detail, I feel forced to also use the constellation's association with the Sea, in order to maximize the possibilities of names for the constellation. So it is that apart from Lerna, I summon first some Nereids. Amphitrite, Galatea, Pasithea, Nausithoe, Menippe, Thaleia, Spio, Ianira, and Asia. Yes, Asia. The continent is named after her, just like Europe is named after Europa, another nymph, that also named the second Galilean moon. Also considering the difference in size between the continents, it sounds reasonable that if a moon is named after Europa, that a planet should be named Asia. Lest someone gets excited on the other side of the Atlantic, Vespucci was a sea man, not a sea beauty. As said in Cancer, Lerna has other mythological significances. The Danaids, for instance, buried in Lerna the heads of their husbands. To complete the naming of the known planets in Hydra, we may use three Danaids, Adiante, Amymone, and Hyperippe. Amymone also resonates with the Hydra itself, since the monster had its lair in the spring of Amymone, deep in a cave in Lerna. Another trick, need it be, and already used in Cancer, is to associate it with Juno. After all, it was her who forced Hercules to execute the labors. Serpents-like monsters are also a recurring theme in mythologies, which is of course very welcome since the constellation is so big. I suggest Jormungand as a name for a planet in Hydra. In Norse mythology, Jormungand is the sea serpent that surrounds the world, and the nemesis of Thor.

Hydrus

Hydrus, the water snake, is a new constellation, but associated with the water snake that Corvus brought to Apollo in his cup (see Crater). Apollo angrily threw all of them to the sky. Being nothing but a small annoyance to the god, we may as well name planets in these constellations after another particular nuisance. Delos and Ortygia, his and Diana's places of birth may represent such difficulties. Juno, irritated with yet another love adventure of Jupiter, kidnapped Ilithyia, goddess of childbirth, in order to prevent Leto from going into labor.

Indus

Indus, the Indian, is one of Plancius' constellations. It represents an Indian, by the time referred to either a native of India or of the Americas. I suggest Hesper, the evening, the setting sun, and thus the Western Hemisphere. The same name is used by Joel Barlow to represent the lands of the American continent in the Columbiad.

Lacerta

Lacerta, the lizard, has one planet discovered. I suggest it be named after Abas, son of king Celeus and prince of Eleusis (see Linx), who was transformed into a lizard by Ceres. Further names can be drawn from Ceres' myth.

Leo

Leo represents the Nemean lion, Hercules first labor. It may also be related to Bacchus, since the lion was an animal closely associated with the wine-god. Omphale, who wore the skin of the lion, Lamus, her son with Hercules; and Tmolus, of Omphale. Naturally, Nemea; Elissos, a river in Nemea; Iraklion, former name of Nemea; Lycurgus, kind of Nemea; and Cleoane, near where the Nemean Games took place, Nemea also figures in the myth of the Seven Against Thebes (Aeschylus 467BC), concerning the battle between an Argive army led by Polynices and the army of Thebes. It is related to the myth of Oedipus and Jocasta, and a good source of future names for Leo and Leo Minor. It was written as a play, and reportedly won the first prize at the City Dyonisia, a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honor of Bacchus. The association with Leo is simple yet sufficient: the Seven pass by Nemea on their way to Thebes. The occurence was not exactly uneventful. It even resulted in a fatality, as described below in Leo Minor. Lions also feature prominently in other mythologies. The yali, for instance, a mythical lion from Vedic mythology. Nergal, the Sumerian god of the underworld, has the shape of a winged lion with a human head.

Leo Minor

Leo minor, a lion cub accompanying Leo, has no myth of its own, being completely correlated with Leo. I suggest the name Archemoros for the planet recently discovered around HD 87883. Archemoros was a infant prince of Nemea who died strangled by a snake while his nanny Hypsipyle was off to fetch water to the Seven.

Lepus

Lepus, the hare, is the favorite prey of Orion and is constantly being hunted by him in the sky. I suggest that the planet around HD 33283 could go by the name of Epimelius. It is one of the many titles of Mercury, Hermes Epimelius, meaning keeper of flocks. Even though the hare is a not a flock animal, Epimelius can be thought to highlight Mercury's animal welfare attributes in general. Being so routinely hunted by Orion, poor Lepus may be in need of some divine protection.

Libra

Libra, the weighting scale, can most obviously be associated with Themis, the Titanian who personificates Justice. I therefore propose to name the planets around Gliese 581 after her and the Horae, her daughters with Jupiter. These are Eirene, Dike, and Eunomia, as mentioned in an example in the introduction. Themis and Jupiter also fathered Astraea, the star-maiden, yet another personification of Justice. In a variant of the interpretation of the constellations, she is Virgo, and Libra the scales she carries. I do like to include her in Libra, but Virgo may be associated with a multitude of other goddesses of more relevance. The presence of the Horae also allows for an association with a different set of Horae, the Hours, allegories for the hours of the day. Hesper, already mentioned in Indus, is one of them, representing Evening. We may as well pick Dysis, the Sunset. Gods and goddesses of justice also feature in other mythologies. Forseti played this role in Norse mythology. It is a suitable name for the planet around HD 134987 c.

Lupus

Lupus, the wolf, may represent Lycaon, the werewolf, already mentioned in Ara. It was named Therion by Hipparchus (meaning beast). Its two known planets may therefore be named Lycaon and Therion, and further names be used from the myth of Lycaon or other generic beasts of mythology. From Norse mythology, Fenris can be used, after the wolf that eats Odin in the Ragnarok.

Lynx

Lynx is one of Hevelius' constellations. Although not named after a mythological figure, we can nevertheless draw an association with Lyncus, the king of Scythia, who was transformed into a lynx by Ceres. When Demeter was looking for Persephone, having taken the form of an old woman called Doso, she received a hospitable welcome from Celeus, king of Eleusis. He asked her to nurse Demophon and Triptolemus, his sons by Metanira. As a gift to Celeus, because of his hospitality, Demeter planned to make Demophon immortal by burning away his mortal spirit in the family hearth every night. She was unable to complete the ritual because Metanira walked in on her one night. Instead, Demeter chose to teach Triptolemus the art of agriculture and, from him, the rest of Greece learned to plant and reap crops. Lyncus, however, did not want to learn the arts, and tried instead to kill Triptolemus. As a punishment, Ceres turned Lyncus into a lynx.

Lyra

Lyra, the lyre, appears in many legends, since it is the main musical instrument of the Antiquity. According to the myth, the lyre was invented by Mercury, not long after his birth. The young god stole the cattle of Apollo, and sacrificed one. Making strings out of the stretched entrails of the animal and the arms from the horns, he fashioned the first lyre. Apollo went furious when he noticed the robbery, and went to Mount Cyllene with the intent to punish the trickster. However, Mercury played the lyre, and Apollo got marveled by the sweet sound of the instrument. He forgave Mercury in trade for the lyre, that became one of his main attributes. Indeed, Apollo's importance as patron of music, poetry, and arts predates his later association with Helios as sun-god. As for mortals, the lyre figures most prominently in the myth of Orpheus. By some considered son of Apollo, Orpheus was taught the instrument by the Muses, and played it to perfection. Jason had him on board of the Argo on advice of Chiron, who said that he would be needed if the Argonauts were ever to pass the Sirens. The Sirens were sea monsters that, disguised as nymphs, played so sweet music that the seafarers were enchanted and lured to their deaths. When the Argo did pass by them, Orpheus drew his lyre. His music was more beautiful than that of the Sirens; so sublime that the bewitching chords went unnoticed by the Argonauts. Orpheus' most known myth, however, is his descent into Hades in the failed attempt to bring back his beloved Eurydice. The association with Apollo is tempting. However, we are running out of names, and Lyra already has Mercury, Orpheus, and the Sirens as sound sources. Furthermore, Apollo has loose associations with many other constellations, some of which have him as only well-developed myth where to draw names from, as in the case of Delphinus. I therefore propose to name the planets in Lyra after Hermes, Mercury's Greek name; naturally Orpheus and Eurydice; and Siren. As the lyre is an instrument, other names could be Alipes, the winged sandals of Mercury, and Petasus, Mercury's winged hat. Harp-related myths also feature in other mythologies. In Celtic mythology, for instance, the harp was one of the attributes of the Dadga, the benevolent leader of the pantheon. His harp had two magic names, one of which was Daurdabla. It should be noted that Lyra is the only constellation picturing a musical instrument, so any music-related myth (not only harps especifically) can be associated with it for the purpose of naming planets.

Mensa

Mensa, the table, is one of Lacaille's constellations, named after Table Mountain near Cape Town, in South Africa, where he spent time observing the southern sky. This brings an immediate association with Adamastor, the Gigante brother of Enceladus who guards the Cape of Storms in the Lusiad. Adamastor appears as a stormy cloud, sinks the ships that try to round the cape, and dissipates into tears, which are the salty waters of the confluence of the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. Also known as the Spirit of the Cape, his name is a near-anagram of Cape of Storms in Portuguese, Cabo das Tormentas, with suppression of letters. The constellation of Mensa and its association with Cape Town seems a good place for Adamastor, who represents the dangers sailors faced when trying to round the cape. May he now also represent that the stormy challenges of discovery of exoplanets were also turned into good hope.

Microscopium

Microscopium is one of Lacaille's constellations, with no mythological association. However, Lalande later tried to rename it to Globus Aerostaticus (hot air balloon). As such, it immediately refers to Daedalus, who attempted flight in order to escape the labyrinth he himself erected. Daedalus is also an inventor, so the association with one of the constellations of Lacaille is natural. However, we may reserve Daedalus for a double system, so that the other planet could be called Icarus. The one in Coma Berenice seemed a good choice, since Ariadne is associated with the myth of the Minotaur. Instead, the double system of CoRot-7 seems better for physical reasons, since CoRot-7 b is the planet with smallest semi-major axis known to date. The planet is also rocky (Queloz et al. 2009), but the temperature on the substellar point is so high (1800-2600\,K, L\'eger et al. 2009) that its surface is probably molten on the day side. The name of the boy who flew too close to the Sun while wearing meltable wax wings is a suitable name for such a planet. Due to this, I prefer to abandon Coma Berenice and Microscopium (or the Balloon, for that matter), in favor of loosely associating Daedalus and Icarus with Monoceros. Planets around Microscopium-Balloon may therefore be named after winged characters of Greek mythology. Alternatively, Perdix (or Talos), Daedalus nephew, may as well figure. He was pushed by Daedalus from a tower, but Minerva saved him by transforming him into the bird of same name. This notorious bird does not build nests on trees. Mindful of falls, it avoids high places. It may represent successful, yet careful, flight, as opposed to the failed and fatal flights of Daedalus and Icarus.

Monoceros

Monoceros, the unicorn, is one of Plancius' constellations. Unicorns do not appear in Roman-Greek mythology, but in treaties of natural history of the ancient Greeks. Ctesias of Cnidos (5th century BC) appears to be the first to mention them. A loose association with mythology may be drawn from the myth of the Cornucopia, the horn of plenty. Cornucopia is the broken horn of Amalthea, the goat that nourished the infant Jupiter, as mentioned in Capricornus. As a single-horned goat, Amalthea can be said to be the Greek version of the Unicorn. Although in this case, the magic horn is the missing one. In Metamorphosis, Ovid has Achelous narrate to Theseus his fight with Hercules for the possession of Dejanira. He transformed himself into a bull to fight the semi-god, but Hercules tore off one of his horns. He trade it with the hero for the horn of Amalthea, which Hercules later gave to the Naiads, the nymphs of fountains and springs. They, in turn, transformed the horn into Cornucopia. It was a magic horn overflowing with fruits and grains. Because of this, it is associated with several agricultural deities, such as Gaia, Cybele, Ceres, and Pluto; as well as with the several river gods and nymphs, as fertilizers of the land. The fact that Achelous narrates the story to Theseus reminds us of the Minotaur, and hence a loose association with the labyrinth, Daedalus, and Icarus. These can be the names of the planets around CoRoT-7, as explained in Microscopium. For the other planets in Monoceros, I therefore suggest the names Cornucopia; Achelous; Adamanthea, other name of Amalthea; and Cybele, Jupiter's mother Rhea by another name; and Dejanira, who prompted the fight between Hercules and Achelous. Also included is Dexamenus, Dejanira's father in a version of her myth. Amalthea also lends its name to Capella, diminutive of Capra in Latin, meaning ``little female goat''. The name Capra may be used here. To finish the naming, Caria, after the region where Cnidos is located, may figure as well, after the association with Ctesias.

Musca

Musca, the fly, is one of Plancius' constellations. Although he created it as Apis, the bee, Lacaille renamed it Musca Australis, in symmetry with then existing northern constellation of Musca Borealis, north of Aries. Although a modern constellation, we can draw some mythological association. A gadfly appears twice in Greek mythology. Jealous Juno sent a gadfly to torment Io, then turned into a cow. The other episode is when Bellerophon tried to reach the Olympus riding on Pegasus. Jupiter used the same dirty trick, now with almost fatal consequences. Bellerophon lost his grip, fell and was saved of certain death by Minerva. Yet, the former name Apus serves for a better association, since bees play a more prominent role than gadflies in ancient culture. The bee was used as an emblem of Potnia, and priestesses of Diana and Minerva were referred as bees (Melissa). Melissa is also the name of the nymph who discovered honey, and helped Amalthea nourish the infant Jupiter. In a later version of the myth, she was given a father, Melisseus, or ``honey-man''. In Delphi, the priestesses were also called Delphic-bee, according to Pindar. The connexion with Delphi allows for a interesting association. Melaina, one of the Naiads, is associated with the springs of Delphi, and loved by Apollo. Melissa is too common a female name for a planet, but Melaina, although not sharing the same etymology, is phonetically similar, as thus fit for the name of HD 111232 b.

Norma

Norma is one of Lacaille's constellations, and as such, has no mythological association. It represents a right angle, a rule, or a carpenter's square. Its association being related to design, architecture and sciences in general, Minerva is the closest association. I suggest one of the three planets in Norma be named after Metis, Titanian also associated with wisdom, and mother of Minerva, albeit in a most unusual birth. The other planets could be named Aegis, after the shield of Minerva, made by Vulcan himself; Pallas, or Pallax, after one of her most widespread titles, Pallas Athena; and Labrys, after the double axe that Vulcan used to open Jupiter's skull and give birth to Minerva.

Octans

Octans is named after the octant, a navigation instrument. Its significance is that it is where the celestial south pole is located. Two planets are known in Octans, that I propose be named Auster and Notus, two names for the South Wind.

Ophiuchus

Ophiuchus or Serpentarius, the snake-holder, represents Asclepius, son of Apollo and the mythological founder of medicine and healing. Its five planets could be called him and his kin. Vediovis (after his Roman name), Yaso, Epione and Meditrina, daughters, and Aratus, his son. Another association for Ophiucus comes from the recurring theme of serpent-worship in other mythologies. From the Vedic myths, we may take Shesha, the king of all nagas (serpents).

Orion

Orion the Hunter figures prominently in the sky, but not much in Greek mythology, in the sense that his myth is not as well developed as, say, Orpheus, Perseus, or Theseus. At the time of the Illiad and the Odyssey, he is already dead, and Homer and Hesiod already mention him as a constellation. In the Odyssey, Ulysses sees him in the underworld, spending the eternity hunting animals. He is mentioned in a few lines in the oldest works of Greek mythology, but no great work developed the myth to the point of creating a standard. In one of the most accepted versions of the myth, he is a giant son of Neptune, extremely handsome, and an excellent hunter. His favorite prey, as mentioned before, is the hare, Lepus. Orion falls in love with Merope (not the pleiad), seduces her, and is blinded by her father, Oenopion. An Oracle told him that his sight could be restored if he travelled to the east and exposed his eyes to the rising sun. He made it to Lemnos, where Vulcan provided him with a guide, Cedalion. Guided by Cedalion, he met his goal and had his sight restored by the sun-god Helios, and Eos, the Dawn. The tale of his death is the most variant point of the myth. In one version, he bragged that he could kill any beast. The Earth, horrified, then sent a giant scorpion, Scorpius, to sting and kill him. In a variant, he befriended Diana, going on many hunters with the mighty goddess, much to Apollo's dislike. One day, Apollo saw him swimming, and dared Diana on arrow shooting using the distant rock as a target. The rock was actually Orion's head, and so Diana accidentally killed him. Many other variants exist, and as my intent is not to re-tell the myths (especially one with so many variants), but to draw names for planets, I will allow myself to narrate just one more. This variant combines both stories by having Scorpio chasing Orion, who swims aways just to be shot by Diana. The position of the constellations in the sky, diametrically opposite, perpetuates the chase. Four planets have been found around stars of Orion. I propose Cedalion, Eos, and Sidde. The latter is an earlier love affair of Orion. To establish a connection with other mythologies, I also use Gilgamesh, the hero after which the Sumerians named the constellation.

Pavo

Pavo, the peacock, is one of Plancius' constellations. Some mythological association can be drawn since the peacock is the bird associated with Juno, and one of the main symbols of the mighty queen of the gods. In the myth, she took the hundred eyes of dead Argus and placed it on the peacock's tail. I suggest the planets in Pavo be named after Juno. However, since Juno is already the name of one of the biggest asteroids, her Greek name, Hera, is more suitable. Cithaeron, the mountain where she married Jupiter; Argolia, the place of her adoration; Cydippe, a priestess of Hera; and Vesta, her sister, goddess of the hearth, should complete the naming of the four planets discovered in Pavo. Vesta also goes by her Greek name, Hestia, because she also already names a major asteroid. The peacock also features in other mythologies. In Vedic mythology, for instance, the deities have vahanas, or mounts, that are closely associated with them. A peacock called Parvani or Neelkanth is the mount of Skanda, the lord of war. Both may be used for planets in Pavo.

Pegasus

Pegasus, the winged horse, and his brother Chrysaor both sprang from the blood of the severed head of Medusa as it fecunded the Earth (or in some variants, the ocean). The horse was tamed by Bellerophon, or in a variant, by Minerva, who later gave the horse to Bellerophon. Pegasus aided Bellerophon in his fight against the Amazons and the Chimera, a monster sibling of Cerberus and the Hydra. There are 11 planets so far discovered in Pegasus, including the very first, 51 Pegasus b. This planet was actually already nicknamed Bellerophon, after the obvious connection. In another obvious connection, I propose the name Chrysaor. Other names may be Anteia, who desired Bellerophon; Iobates, her father; and Philonoe, her sister. These may name the triple system of HR 8799. Chimera is also an obvious choice. The fight with the Amazons also inspires the inclusion of Penthesilea and her sister Hypolita, even though the former is more associated with the Trojan War, and the latter with Hercules' labors. The presence of Minerva in the myth allows for yet another interesting addition. The other two planets then can be drawn from her myth. Parthenos, one of her many titles, and Nike, the goddess of victory, who follows Minerva. As explained in the introduction, the name Osiris is kept for HD 209458 b.

Perseus

Perseus, one of the great heroes of the Greek, has an extensively developed myth where to draw suitable names from. I suggest to name the five planets known to date in Perseus after Danae, his mother; Eurymedon, his title (Perseus Eurymedon, according to Appollonius' Argonautica); Seriphos, the island where Danae and infant Perseus were ashore, and Kibisis, the pouch where Perseus' held the severed head of Medusa. As I do not envision a stiff naming system where the Perseids are only in the constellation of Andromeda, I suggest here one of the planets be named Nicippe, after Sthenelus' wife.

Phoenix

Phoenix is one of Plancius' constellations, named after the mythological fire-bird. The mythology, however, is not Greek but Phoenician. Closely associated with the cult of their sun-gods, Pheonicians and Egyptians knew the Phoenix as the Bennu, a bird identified with a stork or a heron. The ancient Greeks associated it their own word for phoenix, which means crimson. They and the Romans subsequently pictured the bird more like a peacock or an eagle. According to the Greeks, the phoenix lived in Phoenicia next to a well. At dawn, it bathed in the water of the well, where the sun-god Helios stopped his chariot in order to listen to its song. We may name the planets in Phoenix after the horses that pulled the chariot of Helios. They have different names according to the sources. For Homer, two of them are named Abraxas and Therbeeo. For Eumelus they are Eous, Aethiops, Bronte or Tonitrua, and Sterope or Fulgitrua. Ovid calls them Pyrius, Eous, Aethon, and Phlegon.

Pictor

Pictor, representing a painter's easel, is one of Lacaille's constellations. Being art-related, Apollo is the possible mythological association. Being related to painting, the portraits made in the Renaissance also come to mind. I pick one painting in particular, representing a famous episode concerning Apollo, that of the duel of Marsyas. Marsyas was a flutist who challenged Apollo to a musical duel. Apollo naturally won and, as a punishment, hung Marsyas on a tree and skinned him alive. Among the judges was Midas, the only one who voted for Marsyas. As a punishment for his clearly non-musical ear, Apollo changed his ears into donkey's ears. Midas is also a most interesting character. He once hosted the satyr Silenus, who was also Bacchus' foster father. Grateful, Bacchus promises to give Midas whatever he wanted. His famous wish was that everything he touched be turned into gold. At first excited by his new gift, he offered a feast. He soon realized how unwise his wish was as wine and food turned into solid hard gold as he touched them; his family and servants also going the same fate as he held them in despair. Begging Bacchus to take the cursed gift away, he was told to wash himself in the river Pactolus. Afterwards, Midas lost his lust for richness and lived a pastoral life, worshipping Pan. Planets in Pictor may therefore be called Marsyas, Midas, Silenus, and Pactolus. Also Sardis, after where the duel of Apollo and Marsyas took place; and Asellus, meaning donkey, after Midas' punishment for the unwise judgement. Lityerses, Midas' son, completes the naming. Midas is a suitable name for the planet of beta Pictoris, that is still on the make inside its protoplanetary disk. As Midas, planets in this phase of their evolution have evolved their own version of Midas' touch. In their feeding frenzy, they grow so massive that their gravity carves a deep gap centered in its feeding zone, thus halting further growth.

Pisces

According to an ancient Syrian legend, Pisces represent Venus and her son Cupid (Eros). Greek legend recounts that they leapt into the Euprathes in order to escape from Typhon, transforming themselves into fishes to swim away from the danger. This association allows for the use of what is perhaps the most beautiful myth of Greek mythology, that of Eros and Psyche. For the 6 planets found in Pisces, I therefore propose the names Porus and Penia (poverty and necessity), parents of Eros according to one variant of the myth; naturally, Eros and Psyche for the double system of HD 217107; Hedone, after Eros' and Psyche's son; and Zephyrus, the West wind, who carried Psyche to Eros' cave.

Piscis Austrinus

Piscis Austrinus, the southern fish, is seen in the sky drinking water from Aquarius' jar. Since Aquarius represents Ganymede, I find a good choice that Piscis Austrinus be associated with Troy. It is only natural that Ganymede, from Olympus, should keep watching over and providing to his home city, where his parents still grieve his absence. The planet of Fomalhaut b therefore could be named Illion, the one around HD 216770b, Troad, whereas HD 205739 b could be called Dardania, one of the other names of Troy.

Puppis

Puppis, the poop deck, with Carina and Velorum, constitute the Argo Navis. Of the 9 planets found in Puppis, three circle the star HD 69830. It is the only triple system in the Argo, and I cannot resist the temptation of calling them after the Fates. Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, who decide the fate of men. It is a good point to introduce names from the Lusiads in the Argo, since Jupiter agreed to their voyage because the Fates had so decided. For a sailing epic, Navis is but a natural place. Lusus, the mythical founder of Lusitania, and Tagide, after the Tagides, nymphs of the Tagus, can be used for two planets. Back to the argonauts, I randomly pick Lynceus, Iolaus, and Mopsus. Medea, the tragic lover of Jason, completes the planet naming in the constellation.

Pyxis

Pyxis, the mariner's compass, is one of Lacaille's constellations. Being magnetic in nature, I tend to associate the constellation with the region of Magnesia. Magnes, descendant of Deucalion, and first king of Magnesia is one of the names of choice. Of his descendants, Dictys and Hymenaios may serve as well.

Reticulum

Reticulum, like Telescopium, is in some ways an example of meta-naming, in the sense that it is associated with astronomy itself. It refers to the reticle, the piece in front of the telescope cross-haired in a +. shape, that renders stars in photographs their distinct ``spikes''. Being astronomy-related, Urania, the heavenly Muse of Astronomy, would be the natural choice. The choice may be considered bad, since we already have Uranus as a planet in our own solar system. Nevertheless, I stick to this choice. Having Uranus and Urania featuring in the sky is as confusing as having Rome and Rumania, Turkey and Turkomenistan, Niger and Nigeria, i.e., they are simply two names with the same radical, Ouranos, the Greek work for sky. Providing Uranus with a similarly sounding drone is also a good opportunity to alleviate the cacophonia of its name in English. Other muses may integrate the constellation. The eight other muses, Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history), Euterpe (lyric poetry), Melpomene (tragedy), Polyhymnia (choral poetry), Terpsichore (dance), and Thalia (comedy), have interesting associations on their own, and I use some of the names in Ursa Major. The myth of the Muses evolved in time, so that prior to the nine usually recognized as nine muses, there were others. Pausanias lists three, Aoide (songs), Melete (practice), and Mneme (memory), daughters of Uranus and Plusia. Mneme also resonates with Mnemosyne, the Titanian that personifies memory. The myth of the Titans would of course be a good source of names, but they are almost all already used to name the moons of Saturn. I already use at least one of them, Saturn himself, albeit with his Greek name, to name the only planet found in Horologium. I therefore pick the names of Melete, Mneme, and Plusia. Other names may draw from the Titans, Uranus, and Apollo. The latter due to his association with the Muses.

Sagitta

Sagitta, the arrow, represents the arrow that Hercules used to kill Ethon, the eagle that tortured Prometheus. In another variant it is the arrow of Cupid, or the arrow with which Apollo killed a cyclops, or yet an arrow that Chiron (Sagittarius) shoots at Scorpion. In any case, Sagitta should be a homage to famous archers of the Greek myths. There is only one planet so far discovered in Sagitta. I propose to name it Paris since he, with an arrow, succeeded where Hector failed with a sword.

Sagittarius

Sagittarius, the archer, is usually associated with Chiron, the first among the Centaurs. Even though Chiron is already a minor body of the solar system, naming one of the planets in Sagittarius after him is almost unavoidable. In the most accepted version of the myth, he is born of the union between Ixion and the cloud goddess Nephele, yet an older version has him being the fruit of Cronus and Philyra, the nymph who taught humanity how to make paper. Chiron's haunts were on Mount Pelion; there he married the nymph Chariclo who bore him three daughters, Melanippe (or Arne), Endeis, and Okyrhoe, and one son, Carystus. Chiron's figures prominently in mythology as being the mentor of many heroes, such as Asclepius, Ajax, Aeneas, Theseus, Achilles, Jason, and Hercules. I pick Ajax, Caeneus, Actaeon, Telamon, Patroclus, Aeneas, Alcathous, and Achilles among Chiron's disciples for planets in Sagittarius.

Scorpius

Scorpius, the scorpion, represents the giant scorpion that killed (or according to a variant, chases) Orion. There is at least one more connection in mythology where the scorpion appears, and that has to do with Helios, the sun god, and his son, Phaeteon, the shining-one. Helios once promised Phaeteon anything that he wanted, to which the boy asked to drive the sun chariot for one day. Helios reluctantly consented, which proved a disaster. Phaeteon was not able to maneuver, and flew too close to the Earth, burning half of Africa and turning it into a desert. In one version, Jupiter fulminated him with a lightning before he could do more damage. In another version, he flew too close to Scorpius, already a constellation, and was stung and killed by him. The planets in Scorpion may then be named after this myth and that of Helios. I propose Phaeteon and Clymene, his mother. Clymene was also mother of the Heliades, Phaeteon sisters, who wept copiously after his death. They are Aegiale, Aetheria, Helia, and Dioxippe. Leucothoa and Euryphaessa are other love interests of Helios. One of his grandchildren, Ialysos, may also figure. Phaeteon, who flies or too close or too far, is a suitable name for an eccentric planet. One of the Heliades was also known as Merope. Merope is also a star of the Pleiades, and I purposevely suggest to include her name among the exoplanets, for the same reason Atlas was used in Bootes. Scorpions are feature prominently in other mythologies. In the epic of Gilgamesh, the hero travels to the door of the underworld, which is guarded by deadly Scorpion-beings. Unfortunately, these Scorpion-being never introduce themselves. The mountain where the door lays is named though, Mount Masha. In Egyptian mythology, Selket is the goddess of healing, and represents the very deification of scorpions. In Scorpius, there also figures a planet around a pulsar, PSR B1620-26 b. As explained in the manuscript, I propose to name these after the damned ones in the Tartarus. However, that particular planet was actually already nicknamed ``Methuselah''.

Sculptor

Sculptor is one of Lacaille's constellations. Lacaille envisioned it as Apparatus Sculptoris, the sculptor's studio. The name was later shortened. The way of reverting Lacaille's tradition is obvious. The planets in Scultor may be named after several sculptors in the Greek myths. The most notable of which is Prometheus, the sculptor per excellence, who sculpted mankind from clay and gave them life. I prefer to avoid it though, since in the current age we still have people believing in this creation myth, albeit in its Semitic version. Besides, Prometheus already figures in Aquila. Another notable mythical sculptor is Pygmalion, who fell in love with his own sculpture (in Ovid's metamorphosis). He prays to Venus, who concedes life to the statue. Of their union springs a son and a daughter, Paphos and Metharme.

Scutum

Scutum, the shield, contains no known planet-hosting stars as of Feb 2010.

Serpens

Serpens, the snake, is the reptile being held by Ophiuchus, the snake holder. In mythology, it can associated with many monsters, most notably Python and Typhon. With Echdina, Typhon fathered the well-known Cerberus and the lesser-known Orthrus, a two-headed dog slain by Hercules in his tenth labor. Typhon is said by Homer to dwell in a cave with the she-dragon Drakaina, or Delphyne. I propose the double system around HD 168443 be named Typhon and Delphyne. Other planes can be named Python, Orthrus, Askalaphos (after Asklepius), and Arima, the mythical place where Jupiter slain Typhon, also the place where most of these monsters were confined. Also worth noting is that Python was slain by Apollo, so Serpens is yet another constellation that can be associated with him. Through Cerberus, Pluto's myth can also be used for further discovered there.

Sextans

Sextans is one of Hevelius' constellations, named after the astronomical sextant. As an instrument and thus fruit of human intelligence can be associated with Minerva. For its astronomical relevance, with Apollo. Yet I draw from its use in navigation, to associate it with navigations myth such as the Odyssey, the Argonauts or the Lusiad. The more natural would be the Lusiad, since the sextant was invented in the Middle Ages. However, I prefer to keep the associations loose, and draw names from the Odyssey for the four planets known in Sextans. Calypso and Circe, two of the many reasons that so delayed Ulysses' return to Ithaca; Telegonus and Nausinous, kin of Ulysses and Circe.

Taurus

Taurus, the bull, is usually associated with the myth of the abduction of Europa. The princess of Phoenicia was raptured by Jupiter, in the shape of a bull. Another association is with the bull of Crete, the seventh of Hercules' labors. The association with Europa leads immediately to her most famous brother, Cadmus, who Herotodus credits as bringing the Phoenician alphabet to Greece, and hence to Europe (Cilix and Phoenix were her other brothers). Cadmus is also the mythical founder of Thebes, and has a rich myth where to drawn names from. Cadmus is also the consort is Concordia (Harmonia), the goddess of harmony. A suggestion from Moore, and I concur, is that a double system should be named after Corcordia and Pax, peace, her sister, as both often go together. However, Moore chose for that the system of Gliese 876, in Aquarius. I find Taurus a more proper place, given the association with Cadmus. The three are suitable names for the planets around HD 37124. Cadmus allows for yet another interesting association. Semele, the mortal mother of Bacchus, is his and Corcordia's daughter. The association with an Olympic is a welcoming addition. Semele, Cilix, Cadmus, Pax and Corcordia are my choices for the known planets in Taurus.

Telescopium

Telescopium contains no known planet-hosting stars as of Feb 2010.

Triangulum

Triangulum is a constellation with no mythological association. It is was listed by Ptolemy because its brightest stars seem to form a small isosceles triangle. Representing geometry, it may be associated with Minerva, due to hers being patron of mathematics. Also, Pythagoras' reputation was so vast and his life so involved in secrecy (because of the Pythagorean brotherhood), that he was thought to be ``born to Zeus-beloved Apollo'', sent by the gods to benefit humankind, and so described by one of his ancient biographers, Iamblichus. Also, the triangle is a percussion instrument, and thus also related to Apollo. Another possibility are the Dactyls, who worked in the forge of Vulcan and are said to have taught metalworking, mathematics, and the alphabet to humans. In a version of the myth, they go by the name of Acmon (anvil), Damnameneus (hammer), and Celmis (casting), which I use for Triangulum and Triangulum Australe. Another association can be drawn from gods and goddesses of wisdom in other mythologies. The myths of Saa and Thoth, Egyptian gods of wisdom, may be used for planets in Triangulum as well as other, geometry-related, constellations.

Triangulum Australe

See Triangulum.

Tucana

Tucana, representing the toucan, a bird of South America, is one of Plancius' constellations and has no mythological association. As an animal, it may be linked with Mercury or Diana. Taking Mercury, I propose for the two planets in Tucana the names Cylenne, after the mount where Mercury was born; and Nysa, the mount where Mercury took the infant Bacchus to be raised by nymphs. Being a bird of South America, Tucana also invites an association with that continent and the Western hemisphere. Birds feature in many mythologies of the native western peoples, a prominent example being the mythical Thunderbird of North America. Toucans or macaws also feature in the Inca version of the flood myth, where woman-faced birds feed two brothers that survive the waters, and with them repopulate the land. Yet another interesting native american myth involves the woodpecker, which is related to the toucan. The legend tells how a boy was marvelled by the song of Wagnuka, the redheaded woodpecker, and how the bird in turn helped the boy fashion the first flute. The boy was later known as ``tayazo hoksine'', or ``flute boy''.

Ursa Major

Ursa Major, the great bear, represents Callisto, as mentioned in Bootes. I draw loosely on the myth, since a good part of it is reserved to Bootis. Callisto is a nymph of Diana, and through her Ursa Major gets an Olympic association. Planets in Ursa Major therefore can be named after Artemis, Diana's Greek name; Leto, the mortal mother of Apollo and Diana; Adonis, since Diana is usually implicated in his death; Atalanta, the huntress, Diana's proteg\'e and the only woman among the Argonauts; Calydon, after the hunt for the Calydonian Boar; and Niobe, the tragic queen of Thebes and mother of fourteen kids, who looked down on Lato's lower fertility rate, just to have all her kin wiped out by an angered pair of deities. An ancient example on the old quantity vs. quality debate. I deliberately cut short the name-drawing from Diana's myth. My purpose is to include some from Apollo, to further stress that the naming convention I intend to convey is flexible, based on loose, even far-fetched associations. The purpose is to maximize name sources from classic antiquity to a particular constellation. Even though Apollo was already summoned to several constellations, he is Diana's brother. From his quality as patron of arts, I use the names of Calliope, Clio and Euterpe, three of the muses, for further planet names in Ursa Major. And, last but not least, Ursa Major represents in the north what Crux is for the southern hemisphere: an easily recognizable asterism that points to the pole. Skiron and Kaikias, northwest and northeast wind, complete the naming of planets in Ursa Major.

Ursa Minor

Ursa Minor, the little bear, containing the north pole, mirrors the Octans in the southern hemisphere, although with much more abundance of bright stars. It may represent Arcas - although Bootis may as weel -, a dog, or the garden of the Hesperides, the stars being golden apples, or the Hesperides themselves. In any case, the connection with North is the most obvious. Two planets have been found in Ursa Minor (though one of them is doubtful). I propose the names Boreas, after the north wind, and Hiperborea - the mythical country where the sun shone 24 hours a day. Being associated with north, both Ursa Minor and Ursa Major may eventually use names from the Valkyries of Norse mythology, female riders send by Odin to decide who would die in battles. It was imagined that light reflecting on their armors caused the Northern lights.

Vela

Vela, along with Carina and Puppis, constitute the Argo Navis. I randomly choose the following argonauts: Argus, Peleus, Echion, Idmon, Talaus, and Palaemon.

Virgo

Virgo, the maiden, can be associated with any prominent goddess. Juno, Minerva, Diana, Ceres or Proserpina, have all been connected to the constellation. The association with Proserpina is the one I find most interesting. Her return from the Underworld to the company of her mother marks the beginning of spring. Similarly, Virgo is the spring constellation in the northern hemisphere. I choose her myth to name the planets in Virgo. The double system of HD 102272 could be named after Ceres and Proserpina, albeit with their Greek names Demeter and Persephone, to celebrate the long awaited reunion of mother and daughter. 70 Virginis b, nicknamed Goldilocks, may better go by the name of Cora, Persephone's name prior to the abduction. Names for other planets could be Nycteus and Alastor, two of the four horses Pluto used to abduct Persephone; Eleusis, where the abduction took place, according to the Greek myth, or Enna according to the Roman; Hecate, goddess of darkness, who followed Persephone into Hades (in another variant, one of Demeter's guises as a trinity goddess, Persephone herself being the other); Rodi, Greek for pomegranate; and Narcissus. The later because the flower named after the handsome lad is what distracted Persephone and her companions, thus facilitating the abduction. His presence also allows for yet another myth to be used in the naming, from which I pick the nymph Liriope, his mother; the river-god Cephisus, his father; and Ameinias, who in an earlier variant of the myth was the rejected lover of Narcissus (Echo is already used in Capricornus. From Ceres' myth, I suggest the names Erinys (anger), one of her titles; and Callichoron, the well where she copiously wept for the abduction of Persephone. The planets around the pulsar PSR 1257+12, as mentioned in the manuscript should receive names of the damned in the Tartarus. I propose to name them after Sisyphus, Ixion, and Tantalus. As the Underworld is the realm of Persephone, these three poor souls are in the right place in the sky. Virgin goddesses are also a recurring theme across cultures. Tuonetar from Finnish mythology, Tamar from Georgian, Devana from Slavik, and Anat from Semitic mythology are but a few examples. I suggest their names be used for planets in Virgo.

Volans

Volans, the flying fish, is one of Plancius' constellations. I draw again on the myth of Neptune, and for the planet around HD 76700 I pick a Nereid, Nesaea. She was one of the Nereids who gathered round Thetis in her sympathetic grief for Achilles' loss of Patroclus.

Vulpecula

Vulpecula, the fox, is one of Hevelius' constellations. Although Hevelius did not create it for any mythological association, we can therefore find one fox in Greek mythology. That is the Teumessian fox, a gigantic animal of the kin of Echidna. The Teumessian fox had the particular property that it could never be caught. It was chased by Laelaps, the dog that caught anything. The contradiction that was set caught the attention of Jupiter, who elevated both to the skies, which is why in some myths it represents Lepus, the prey of Orion. We may as well conclude that it simply underscores the philosopher's taste for paradoxes.

 

 

FAQ

  • Jason? Peristera, the female pigeon? What kind of names are these?

    The constellation-myth naming scheme was the reason for the choice of Peristera for HD 43848 b, and Jason for HD 65216 b (the name should be read Yasson). The former circles a star in the constellation of Columba, the dove. The latter is the leader of the Argonauts, and thus a suitable name for a planet in Carina, in the former constellation of Argo. Ideally one would prefer to avoid such cases, but that is a virtually impossible goal. There will always be an obscure minor language in the Pacific Islands in which one of the names will be problematic. I did not decline to change it because of stubbornness, it was a decision towards minimizing subjectiveness. If one cannot identify all problematic cases in all languages, it is less subjective to not avoid it even when one can identify it. Native English speakers are living with Uranus for centuries. The Greeks can certainly live with Peristera.

  • "Extensive use of Wikipedia"? That's crap!

    In quoting "extensive use of Wikipedia" I was just being fair to the sources, even one as unorthodox as Wikipedia. As an astronomer, it is impressive to see the good quality of the astronomy wikis. The Roman-Greek mythology wikis were also quite complete. But of course I had dictonaries of Greek mythology to check the information. Many books nowadays acknowledge use of Wikipedia. It is a good source once the information there is handled with care. The problem with Wikipedia is not that it is bad, but that it is new. It is a whole novel way of handling publishing of information, in the sense that it obeys the equivalent of Linus' law, instead of being subject of the more traditional method of peer review. Some people are always scared of innovations.

  • Why just Roman-Greek mythology?

    Well, that's not just Roman-Greek mythology. As explained in the manuscript, the scheme of associations with the myth of the constellation is purposively loose, in order to maximize the available names. Most names are from Roman-Greek mythology, but Lupus, the wolf, for instance, may also refer to Fenris in Norse mythology. In another example, Orion, the hunter, may also be Gilgamesh in Sumerian mythology. Name suggestions from other mythologies are particularly welcomed, since they contribute to the internationalization of the system.

  • We don't want to "open that can of worms" - there will be all sorts of politics and fights when objectionable names get proposed. This is not science!

    I am not the kind of person that shies away from political discussions. Are there objections? Let's debate. Moreover, an objectionable name is better than no name at all.

  • It is not scientifically useful to do this.

    Partly. As one astronomer pointed out, the somewhat confusing existing nomenclature collision between planetary naming and (hierarchical) binary star naming could be perhaps resolved with such naming - indeed, a scientifically meritorious purpose to such naming. But that is approaching the subject by its less meritorious part. Indeed the vast majority of exoplanets will only be known by astronomers, as is the case with stars and galaxies. If one is just interested on light curves, surface temperatures, and formation processes, indeed car plate licenses and telephone numbers do the trick. But, as Poincare summed up, Astronomy's usefulness is not its applications, but its inspirations. In fact, one of the social tasks of Astronomy, perhaps the main one, is to refine the Umwelt of the species. Naming the planets may not be scientifically useful, but is socially useful. Catalog numbers are useful to astronomers, but cumbersome to the general public. Public awareness for the field of extrasolar planets is already high but could be even higher with proper names. As noted by Govert Schilling, "would there be so much interest in black holes and the Big Bang if they were called 'space-time singularities' and 'cosmological boundary condition event' respectively?"

  • What will you do when the number reach 100,000 planets and you run out of mythological names?

    The most likely process for doing such naming would be copying, as much as reasonably possible, the existing IAU processes on asteroid naming. Asteroids are assigned numbers and placed in a waiting list until a name is decided. Hundreds of thousands are known, but only about 15,000 are named. We want of course to avoid what happened with that system, i.e., the occurence of frivolous names, such as pets, spouses, and kids. For this reason, the names should be kept mythological. With some many rich cultures in the world, we have names for many, many planets. But after the first thousands, the need for naming every single one of them will of course be diminished, as happens now with asteroids. Then, just those that deserve a special attention, such as prototypes of new classes, shall receive a proper name, as happens now with stars. We don't name all billions, trillions of faint stars. But we named Proxima Centauri for a special reason, didn't we? The same should happen with the planets.

  • Why did you write such an essay? That's completely unorthodox!

    If I were orthodox I would have gone into engineering, medicine, or law. I wrote it for the same reason why we do science. For the fun of it. :)

  • There is no pressure for the current nomenclature to change to something else

    Can the IAU comission on exoplanets really think so? If so, well... first, the scheme proposed is not a change, but an addition. Stars are known by many names. Merope is also known as 23 Tau, HD 23480, HIC 17608, HR 1156, 2MASS J03461958+2356541, and V971 Tau, to name a few. I do not see the negative side of using the current naming scheme for scientific publications but also having a proper name for popular writings.

    As for the claim that the public is not interested in naming... below I list some of the reactions and comments the manuscript has received in the blogosphere and popular science magazines.